"Finnegan's Wake" is an Irish-American comic ballad, first published in New York in 1864. The song was a staple of the Irish folk-music group the Dubliners, who played it on many occasions and included it on several albums, and is especially well known to fans of the Clancy Brothers, who have performed and recorded it with Tommy Makem. The song has more recently been recorded by Irish-American Celtic punk band Dropkick Murphys. The song is also a staple in the repertoire of Irish folk band the High Kings, as well as Darby O'Gill, whose version incorporates and encourages audience participation.
In the ballad, the hod-carrier Tim Finnegan, born "with a love for the liquor", falls from a ladder, breaks his skull, and is thought to be dead. The mourners at his wake become rowdy, and spill whiskey over Finnegan's corpse, causing him to come back to life and join in the celebrations. Whiskey causes both Finnegan's fall and his resurrection—whiskey is derived from the Irish phrase uisce beatha (pronounced [ˈɪʃcə ˈbʲahə]), meaning "water of life".
Hiberno-English phrases and terms
- brogue (an Irish or Scottish accent)
- hod (a tool to carry bricks in) (Slang term for a tankard or drinking vessel)
- tippler's way (a tippler is a drunkard)
- craythur (craythur is poteen (Poitín), "a drop of the craythur" is an expression to have some poteen)
- Whack fol the dah (non-lexical vocalsinging called "lilting"; see Scat singing and mouth music. It is also punned upon repeatedly by James Joyce as Whack 'fol the Danaan'.)
- trotters (feet)
- full (drunk)
- mavourneen (my darling)
- hould your gob (shut up)
- belt in the gob (punch in the mouth)
- Shillelagh law (a brawl)
- ruction (a fight)
- bedad (an expression of shock)
- Thanam 'on dhoul (Irish: D'anam 'on diabhal, "your soul to the devil") However, in other versions of the song, Tim says "Thunderin' Jaysus."
Use in literature
The song is famous for providing the basis of James Joyce's final work, Finnegans Wake (1939), in which the comic resurrection of Tim Finnegan is employed as a symbol of the universal cycle of life. As whiskey, the "water of life", causes both Finnegan's death and resurrection in the ballad, so the word "wake" also represents both a passing (into death) and a rising (from sleep), not to mention the wake of the lifeship traveling in between. Joyce removed the apostrophe in the title of his novel to suggest an active process in which a multiplicity of "Finnegans", that is, all members of humanity, fall and then wake and arise.
Many Irish bands have performed Finnegan's Wake including notably:
- The Clancy Brothers on several of their albums, including Come Fill Your Glass with Us (1959), A Spontaneous Performance Recording (1961), Recorded Live in Ireland (1965), and the 1984 Reunion concert at Lincoln Center.
- The Dubliners on several live albums.
- The Irish Rovers on their Greatest Hits album (1964-2014), "50 Years", and on their 1989 album "Hardstuff".
- Dropkick Murphys on their albums Do or Die and Live on St. Patrick's Day From Boston, MA.
- Brobdingnagian Bards on their album Songs of Ireland.
- The Tossers on their album Communication & Conviction: Last Seven Years.
- Orthodox Celts on their album The Celts Strike Again.
- Ryan's Fancy on their album Newfoundland Drinking Songs.
- Beatnik Turtle on their album Sham Rock
- Christy Moore on his album The Box Set 1964–2004
- LeperKhanz on the album Tiocfaidh Ár Lá (2005).
- Schooner Fare on their album Finnegan's Wake
- Woods Tea Company on their album The Wood's Tea Co. – Live!
- Steve Benbow on his album Songs of Ireland
- Johnny Logan on his album, The Irish Connection (2007).
- Roger McGuinn in his Folk Den series.
- Dominic Behan on his album Down by the Liffeyside
- Poxy Boggards on their albums Barley Legal and Bitter and Stout
- Seamus Kennedy on his album By Popular Demand
- The High Kings on their albums Memory Lane and Live in Ireland
- Derek Warfield on the album God Save Ireland (this recording is used repeatedly on the TV series iZombie)
- Frank McNally, 'Manhattan Transfer', An Irishman's Diary, The Irish Times, 5 November 2019
- McHugh, Roland (1981). The Finnegans Wake Experience. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-520-04298-8.
- brogue, noun Cambridge Dictionaries Online
- hod, noun Cambridge Dictionaries Online
- tippler, noun Cambridge Dictionaries Online
- craythur, noun Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- trotter, noun Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- mavourneen, noun Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- hold your gob shut, phrase Cambridge Online Dictionaries
- ructions, noun Cambridge Online Dictionaries
- bedad, interjection Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- MacKillop, James (1986). Fionn Mac Cumhaill: Celtic Myth in English Literature. Syracuse University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8156-2353-3.
- Fargnoli, A. Nicholas; Gillespie, Michael Patrick (1996). James Joyce A to Z: The Essential Reference to the Life and Work. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-511029-6.
- Seed, David (9 June 2008). A Companion to Science Fiction. John Wiley & Sons. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-470-79701-3.
- Miller, Scott (2010). Music: What Happened?. 125 Records. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-615-38196-1.
- Drew, Ronnie (3 September 2009). Ronnie. New York: Penguin Books Limited. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-14-193003-9.
- Warren, John (2009). Historic Tales from the Adirondack Almanack. History Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-59629-727-2.
- Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Hooligans, The. "Finnegan's Wake". Youtube.
- The full text of Finnegan's Wake at Wikisource
- Finigans Wake Arranged by John Durnal and published in New York by John J. Daly. The date on the front is 1854, but the date inside is 1864, which may be the correct date.
- 'Finnegan’s Wake - Origins' (Brendan Ward on the origins of the song)
- 'Finnegan’s Wake - The Origin of the Species' (Brendan Ward on its authorship)
- 'Finnegan’s Wake - The Lyrics' (Brendan Ward compares differences in the earliest published lyrics)